Originated by Swiss mathematician and astronomer Fritz Zwicky, this is a useful method when you need ideas for extending, modifying or improving an existing product or service.


  1. First, make a list of each component or feature of the product, using sensory-specific language.
  2. Then produce a list of each attribute of each component.

The purpose of the method is to get beyond what the product or service is used for at present and to discover what it is capable of being used for.

See also the methods in the combining category including Attribute Listing, Multi-Choice Matrix, Cube Crawling, and Sword.